Graviditet och amalgam


– en risk för hjärnskador hos det blivande barnet

Av Dr. Magnus Nylander, näringsforskare och kvicksilverexpert

 

 

 

Del 8 - Referenser

 

1. WHO (1990) Environmental Health Criteria for Methyl mercury, 101, Geneva, World Health Organization.


2. WHO (1991) Environmental Health Criteria for Inorganic Mercury, 118, Geneva, World Health Organization.


3. Stock A (1926a) Die Gefährlichkeit des Quecksilberdampfes. Z. Angew. Chemie. 39:461%u2011466.


4. Stock A (1926b) Die Gefärhlichkeit des Quecksilberdampfes und der Amalgame. Z. Angew. Chemie. 39:984%u2011989.


5. Frykholm K O (1957) Mercury from dental amalgam its toxic and allergic effects and some comments on occupational hygiene. Acta Odontol. Scand. 15 suppl. 22: 1-108.


6. Gay DD, Cox RD, & Reinhardt JW (1979) Chewing releases mercury from fillings. Lancet i: 985-986.


7.   Svare C W, Peterson L C, Reinhardt J W et al. (1981) The effect of dental amalgams on mercury levels in expired air. J. Dent. Res. 60(9):1668%u20111671.


8. Abraham J E, Svare C W & Frank C W (1984) The effect of dental amalgam restorations on blood mercury levels. J. Dent. Res. 63(1):71%u201173.


9. Utt H D (1984) ”Mercury Breath” - How much is too much? J. Calif. Dent. Assoc. 12:41%u201145.


10. Patterson J E, Weissberg B G & Dennison P J (1985) Mercury in human breath from dental amalgams. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34:459%u2011468.


11. Vimy M J & Lorscheider F L (1985a) Intra-oral air mercury released from dental amalgam. J. Dent. Res. 64(8):1069%u20111071.


12. Vimy M J & Lorscheider F L (1985b) Serial measurement of intra-oral air mercury: Estimation of daily dose from dental amalgam. J. Dent. Res. 64(8):1072%u20111075.


13. Nylander M, Friberg L, Lind B & Åkerberg S (1988) Effects of breathing patterns on mercury release from amalgam fillings. Appendix II. Clarkson TW, Friberg L, Hursch JB & Nylander M: The prediction of intake of mercury vapor from amalgams. In: Clarkson TW Friberg L, Nordberg GF & Sager PR, eds. Biological monitoring of toxic metals, New York, Plenum Press, pp 247-264.


14. Aronsson A-M, Lind L, Nylander M, Nordberg M (1989) Dental amalgam and mercury. Biol. Metals. 2:25-30.


15. Nylander M (1990) Accumulation and Biotransformation of Mercury and its Relationship to Selenium after Exposure to Inorganic Mercury and Methyl Mercury. A Study on Individuals with Amalgam Fillings, Dental Personnel, and Monkeys. Doctoral Thesis, Karolinska Institutet.


16. Nylander M (2004) Kvicksilver i amalgamfyllningar – en oacceptabel hälsorisk. Medikament 5-6:24-29.


17. Nylander M (1998) Fri från amalgam. ISBN 91-973015-0-7. Tryckeri Scandbook, Falun.


18. Weiner JA & Nylander M (1996) Aspects of Health Risks of Mercury From Dental Amalgams. Toxicology of Metals,CRC Lewis Publishers, Chapter 30, pp  469-486.


19. Nylander M (1986) Mercury in pituitary glands of dentists. Lancet i:442.


20. Nylander M, Friberg L, Lind B. (1987) Mercury concentrations in the human brain in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Swed Dent J. 11:179%u2011187.


21. Nylander M, Friberg L, Eggleston D, Björkman L.(1989) Mercury accumulation in tissues from dental staff and controls in relation to exposure. Swed Dent. J.


22. Eggleston D W & Nylander M (1987) Correlation of dental amalgam with mercury in brain tissue. J. Prosthet. Dent. 58:704%u2011707.


23. Drasch G, Schupp I & Günther G. (1989) Einfluss from Amalgam-Füllungen auf die Quecksilberkonzentration in der Nierenrinde. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Trace Element Symposium in Leipzig. Anke M, Baumann W, Bräunlich H, Brückner C, Groppel B & Grün M (Eds). Jena: Der Friedrich Schiller Universität, pp. 1653%u20111659.


24. Nylander M (2003) Rischi per la salute derivati dal mercurio odontoiatrico. Accademia Internazionale di Odontoiatria biologica, AIOB, Presidenti prof. Giovanni Dolci & prof. Boyd Haley. 7-8 Novembre 2003, Padova, Italy.


25. Socialstyrelsen - Expert Committee , Lundberg P O, Ahlbom A et al. (1987) Mercury/amalgam, Health Risks. In: Socialstyrelsen Redovisar 1987:10. Stockholm: National Board of Health and Welfare (In Swedish, summary of each chapter in English).


26. MFR, Medicinska forskningsrådet (1992). Potential biological consequences of mercury released from dental amalgam. Eds. Bergman B, Boström H, Larsson KS, & Löe H. Proceedings from Stockholm, April 9-10.


27. Socialstyrelsen (1994). Socialstyrelsens expertgrupp. Blir man sjuk av amalgam? SoS-rapport 21.


28. EU-rapport (1997) Andersson BA et al. Dental amalgam. A report from an Ad-Hoc Working Group presented at the commision and the medical Devices Experts Group.


29. Nylander M & Weiner JA (1986) Kvicksilverförgiftning via amalgam, en realitet. Medicinsk debatt. Läkartidningen 24:2208.


30. Barregård L, Sällsten G & Järvholm B. (1995) People with high mercury uptake from their own amalgam fillings. Occup. Environ. Med., 52: 124-128.


31. Foa V, Caimi L, Amante L et al. (1976) Patterns of some lysosomal enzymes in the plasma and of proteins in urine of workers exposed to inorganic mercury. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 37:115%u2011124.


32. Stewart WK, Guirgis HA, Sanderson J, Taylor W. Urinary mercury excretion and proteinuria in pathology laboratory staff. Br J Ind Med 1977;34:26%u201131.


33. Buchet JP, Roels H, Bernard A, Lauwerys R. Assement of renal function of workers exposed to inorganic lead, cadmium or mercury vapor. J Occup Med 1980;22:741%u2011749.


34. Buchwald H (1972) Exposure of dental workers to mercury. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 33:492%u2011502.


35. Roels H, Gennart J%u2011P, Lauwerys R, Buchet J%u2011P, Malchaire J, Bernard A. 1343Surveillance of workers exposed to mercury vapour: validation of previously proposed biological threshold limit value for mercury concentration in urine. Am J Ind Med 1985;7:45%u201171.


36. Piikivi L & Tolonen U (1989) EEG findings in chlor-alkali workers subjected to low long term exposure to mercury vapor. Br. J. Ind. Med. 46:370%u2011375.


37. Nilsson B & Nilsson B (1986b) Mercury in dental practice. II. Urinary mercury excretion in dental personnel. Swed. Dent. J. 10:221%u2011232.


38. Olstad M L, Holland R I, Wandel N & Pettersen A H (1987) Correlation between amalgam restorations and mercury concentration in urine. J. Dent. Res. 66:1179%u20111182.


39. Langworth S, Elinder C-G & Åkesson A (1988a) Mercury exposure from dental fillings. I. Mercury concentrations in blood and urine. Swed. Dent. J. 12:69%u201170.


40. Nuyts GD, Roels HA, Verpooten AM, Bernard RR, Lauwerys RR & De Broe ME (1992) Intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase in urine as an indicator of mercury induced effects on the S3 segment of the proximal tubule. Nephrol Dial Transplant 7: 225-229.


41. Cardenas A, Roels H, Bernard AM, Barbon R, Buchet JP, Lauwerys RR, Rosello J, Hotter J, Mutti G, Franchini I, Fels LM, Stolte H, De Broe ME, Nuyts GD, Taylor SA & Price RG (1993) Markers of early renal changes induced by industrial pollutant. 1. application to workers exposed to mercury vapour. Br J Ind Med 50:17-27.


42. Woods JS, Martin MD, Naleway CA, Echeverria D (1193) Urinary porphyrin profiles as a biomarker of mercury exposure to mercury vapor. J Toxicol Environ Health 40: 235-246.


43. Echeverria D, Heyer NJ, Martin MD, Naleway CA, Woods JS & Bittner AC (1995) Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to Hg-vapor among dentists. Neurotoxicol Teratol 17: 161-168.


44. Ritchie KA, MacDonald EB, Hammersley R, O’Neil JM, McGovan DA, Dale IM, & Wesnes K (1995) A pilot study of the effect of low level exposure to mercury on the health of dental surgeons. Occup Environ Med 52: 813-817.


45. Drasch G et al (1994) Mercury burden of fetal and infant tissues. Eur J Pediatr 153:607-610.


46. Lutz E et al (1996) Concentrations of mercury, cadmium and lead in brain and kidney of second trimester fetuses and infants. J Trace Elem Med Biol 10: 61-67. 


47. Vimy MJ et al (1990) Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings. Am J Physiol 258: R939-R945.


48. Oskarsson A et al (1996) Total and inorganic mercury in breast milk in relation to fish consumption and amalgam in lactating women. Arch Environ Health 51: 234-241.


49.  Dencker L (1998) Vad vet vi om amalgam? Kvicksilver, amalgam och oral galvanism. FRN, Forskningsrådsnämndens rapport till regeringen, s. 45-58.


50. Berlin M, Hua J, Lögdberg B & Warfvinge K (1992) Prenatal exposure to mercury vapor: Effects on brain development. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 19:324-326.


51. Fredriksson A, Dahlgren L, Danielsson BR, Eriksson P, Dencker L & Archer T (1992) Behavioural effects of neonatal metallic mercury exposure in rats. Toxicology 74: 151-160.


52. Danielsson BR, Fredriksson A, Dahlgren L, Gårdlund AT, Olsson L, Dencker L & Archer T (1993) Behavioural effects of prenatal metallic mercury inhalation exposure in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol 15: 391-396.


53. Yoshida M, Satoh H, Kojima S & Yamamura Y (1990) Retention of mercury in organs of neonatal guinea pigs after in utero exposure to mercury vapor. J. Trace. Elem. Exp. Med. 3:91%u2011109.


54. Maths Berlin (1998) Kvicksilver i tandfyllnadsmaterial – miljömedicinsk riskanalys: En litteratur – och kunskapsöversikt. FRN, Forskningsrådsnämndens rapport till regeringen.


55. Roeleveld N et al (1993) Mental retardation and parental occupation: a study on the applicability of job exposure matrices. Br Ind Med 50: 945-954.

 

 

Del 1 - Bakgrund

 

Del 2 -Det blivande barnets kvicksilverexponering från mammans amalgamfyllningar

 

Del 3 - Kvicksilver i modersmjölk

 

Del 4 - Toxisk effektnivå av kvicksilver i fostrets och den nyföddes hjärna

 

Del 5 - Förändringar i barns personlighetsutveckling på grund av amalgam?

 

Del 6 - Sammanfattning

 

Del 7 - Så här kan du skydda ditt barn

 

Del 8 - Referenser

 

 

Tillbaka till inledningen av Graviditet och amalgam